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Sigmoidoscopy

Definition

Sigmoidoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum.

Alternative Names

Flexible sigmoidoscopy; Sigmoidoscopy - flexible; Proctoscopy; Proctosigmoidoscopy; Rigid sigmoidoscopy

How the test is performed

You will be asked to lie on your left side with your knees drawn up to your chest.

A gastroenterologist or surgeon usually performs the test.

The doctor will carefully place a gloved and lubricated finger into your rectum to check for blockage and gently enlarge (dilate) the anus. This is called a digital rectal exam.

Next, a flexible tube with a camera on the (sigmoidoscope) is placed through the anus. The scope is gently moved into your colon. Air is inserted into the colon to enlarge the area and help the doctor see better. The air may cause the urge to have a bowel movement or pass gas. Suction may be used to remove fluid or stool.

The doctor may take tissue samples with a tiny biopsy tool inserted through the scope.  Heat (electrocautery) may be used to remove polyps. Images of the inside of your colon may be taken.  

Sigmoidoscopy using a rigid scope may be done to treat problems of the anus or rectum.

How to prepare for the test

Your doctor or nurse will tell you how to prepare for the exam. You will use an enema to empty your bowels. This is usually done 1 hour before the sigmoidoscopy.

On the morning of the procedure, eat a light breakfast.

How the test will feel

During the exam you may feel:

  • Pressure during the digital rectal exam or when the scope is placed in your rectum
  • The need to have a bowel movement
  • Some bloating or cramping caused by the air or by stretching of the bowel by the sigmoidoscope

After the test, your body will pass the air that was put into your colon.

Children may be sedated for this procedure.

Why the test is performed

You doctor may recommend this test to look for the cause of: 

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea, constipation, or other changes in bowel habits
  • Blood, mucus, or pus in the stool
  • Weight loss

This test can also be used to:

  • Confirm findings of another test or x-rays
  • Screen for colorectal cancer or polyps
  • Take a biopsy of a growth

Normal Values

A normal test result will show no problems with the color, texture, and size of the lining of the sigmoid colon, rectal mucosa, rectum, and anus.

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal results can indicate:

What the risks are

There is a slight risk of bowel perforation (tearing a hole) and bleeding at the biopsy sites. The overall risk is very small.

References

Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brooks D, Saslow D, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States. 2010: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60:99-119.

Weinberg DS. In the clinic: colorectal cancer screening. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(3):ITC2-1-ITC2-16.

Kahn E, Daum F. Anatomy, histology, embryology, and developmental anomalies of the small and large intestine. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 96.


Review Date: 10/8/2012
Reviewed By: George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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