Colorectal cancer -- cancer of the colon and rectum -- is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in America. Colon cancer occurs in the large intestine. If the cancer is in the last 6 inches of the colon (the rectum), it is considered rectal cancer. The colon is the lower part of the digestive system, which processes food for energy and rids the body of solid waste. Together, these cancers are referred to as colorectal cancers. Most colorectal cancers begin as benign adenomas, or polyps that grow on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. These growths spread very slowly, taking from 10 - 20 years to become cancerous. Regular screening tests can identify and remove polyps before they become cancerous. Once colorectal cancer is diagnosed, the prognosis depends on how much the cancer has spread.
Most cases of colorectal cancer occur in people over 50. Although colorectal cancer is responsible for thousands of deaths every year, it is highly treatable if caught early.
Surgery to remove the part of the colon containing the tumor is the primary treatment. Depending on the stage of the cancer, surgery is followed with chemotherapy. If the tumor is particularly large, you may need radiation before or after surgery.
Some medications or supplements may help prevent the development of polyps or colorectal cancer. Making lifestyle changes, especially eating less red meat, losing weight, quitting smoking, and getting more exercise, may help prevent the disease -- even in people with a family history of the condition.
Even if you have no family history of colorectal cancer, an unhealthy lifestyle can increase your risk of developing the disease. Some experts believe making healthy lifestyle changes may lower the risk of developing colorectal cancer by as much as 70% for some people.
Many studies support the association between colorectal cancer and lack of exercise and obesity. Research continues to show that exercise and low-calorie diets may help prevent colorectal cancer.
A large, population-based study of men and women in Hawaii found that the following lifestyle factors were linked with colorectal cancer:
- Heavy alcohol consumption
- History of diabetes
- Frequent constipation
- High calorie diet
- Physical inactivity
- Low vegetable fiber intake (evidence here is mixed)
- High levels of insulin (hormone that controls blood sugar levels)
- Meat consumption
After surgery, chemotherapy (the use of anticancer drugs to destroy cancer cells) may be given to kill any cancerous cells that remain in the body. Chemotherapy controls the spread of the disease and improves survival rates over time. Doctors may use the following chemotherapeutic medications alone or in combination to treat colorectal cancer:
- FOLFOX -- a type of combination chemotherapy used to treat colorectal cancer. It includes the drugs fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin.
- Camptosar -- used when colon cancer has spread (metastasized) or returned; may be combined with other drugs.
- Bevacizumab (Avastin) -- used when colorectal cancer has spread, it starves tumors of blood and oxygen.
- Cetuximab (Erbitux) -- used when colorectal cancer has spread despite the use of another drug, irinotecan (Camptosar), or when patients cannot take Camptosar alone. It works to stop cancer cells from reproducing.
- Panitumumab (Vectibix) -- used when colorectal cancer has spread despite chemotherapy. It works similar to Erbitux.
Researchers are investigating whether long-term use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) plays a role in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Preliminary studies are promising, however, these drugs have risks of their own, including an increased risk of stomach bleeding. NSAIDs may also increase risk of heart problems.
Surgery and Other Procedures
Surgery is the treatment of choice for colorectal cancer, and is best when the disease is found at an early stage. Polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy, before becoming cancerous. When colon cancer is present, a person may need a partial or total removal of the colon (colectomy) and rectum (rectal resection). It depends on how severe the cancer is, where it is located, and whether or where it has spread. During surgery, the surgeon also examines other organs for signs of cancer. If cancer has spread to the liver, a portion of the liver may be removed as well. After removing the tumor and nearby tissue, the surgeon reconnects the healthy portions of the colon or rectum. If the healthy parts of the colon or rectum cannot be reconnected, a temporary or permanent opening (stoma) is made through the wall of the abdomen to provide a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is called a colostomy. Radiation may also be used before or during surgery to shrink the tumor, and it may be recommended after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. After surgery, colonoscopies are performed every 3 - 6 months for 3 years.
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
Colorectal cancer should never be treated with nutrition and dietary supplements alone. However, a comprehensive treatment plan for colorectal cancer may include a range of complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies. Some supplements and herbs may help reduce side effects from conventional medications. Others may help reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Mind body therapies such as meditation, relaxation techniques, yoga, and qi gong may reduce the effects of stress and enhance your response to treatment. Ask your team of health care providers about the best ways to incorporate these therapies into your overall treatment plan.
Always tell your health care provider about the herbs and supplements you are using or considering using. Many supplements may interfere with conventional cancer treatments, including chemotherapy.
Follow these nutritional tips for overall health:
- Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell peppers). Antioxidants help protect against cancer.
- Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and especially sugar.
- Eat foods rich in fiber, especially cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage.
- Eat fewer red meats and more cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy) or beans for protein. Studies suggest that people who eat less meat are at lower risk of developing colorectal cancer. Quality protein sources, such as organic eggs, whey, and vegetable protein shakes, can be used to help gain muscle mass and prevent wasting that can sometimes be a side effect of cancer therapies.
- Use healthy oils, such as olive oil or coconut oil.
- Eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
- Reduce saturated fats, especially red meat.
- Avoid caffeine and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
- Drink 6 - 8 glasses of filtered water daily.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.
These supplements may also help reduce risk of developing colorectal cancer:
- A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.
- Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 - 2 capsules or 1 - 3 tablespoonfuls oil daily. Population studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of developing colon, breast, or prostate cancer. A few preliminary studies seem to suggest that fish oil might help reduce the growth rate of colon cancer cells, but more research is needed to know for sure. Ask your doctor before taking high doses of supplemental fish oil, which can increase the risk of bleeding, especially if you are taking blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin. Cold-water fish, such as salmon or halibut, are good sources to add to your diet.
- Probiotic supplement (containing a mixture of organisms including Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 - 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day. These "friendly" bacteria help keep the digestive tract healthy. Preliminary evidence suggests that probiotics might help reduce recurrence of tumors in people who have had surgery to remove colon cancer. Refrigerate your probiotic supplements for best results.
- Calcium, 1,000 - 1,200 mg daily. Calcium binds to ionized fatty acids and secondary bile acids to reduce mucosal toxicity and/or directly reduce intestinal proliferation. In fact, studies show a 14% reduction in risk among subjects with the highest versus the lowest categories of intake.
- Vitamin D - Preliminary studies suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone may be associated with up to a 50% reduction in colon cancer risk. More research is needed. Dosing guidelines for Vitamin D have been a subject of much controversy with some experts recommending conservative dosing of 400 - 1000 IU per day for adults while others hold that much higher doses are necessary. Also some megadose Vitamin D supplements have now appeared in health food stores. High levels of vitamin D may be particularly risky in patients with Sarcoidosis, Histoplasmosis, Parathyroid disease and some types of lymphomas. Speak to your doctor about proper amounts of Vitamin D for your particular case.
Herbs are a way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. However, herbs alone should never be used to treat colon cancer, and you should talk to your doctor before taking any herbs if you are being treated for colon cancer. Some herbs and supplements can interfere with chemotherapy and other treatments. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to diagnose your problem before starting treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 - 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 - 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 - 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.
- Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, 250 - 500 mg daily. Green tea contains antioxidants and can help boost the immune system. It may help prevent cancer, although studies haven't been able to prove that. Use caffeine-free products. You may also prepare teas from the leaf of this herb. Green tea can worsen symptoms in patients with Glaucoma and may be contraindicated in cerain patients who suffer from liver disease and osteoporosis; speak with your physician.
- Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) standardized extract, 150 - 300 mg 2 - 3 times daily. Animal studies suggest it may have cancer fighting properties. One study in humans found it strengthened the immune system response, which is often weakened during chemotherapy. You may also take a tincture of this mushroom extract, 30 - 60 drops 2 - 3 times a day. Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interact with Reishi mushroom.
- Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) standardized extract (D-fraction), 600 mg twice daily. Preliminary studies suggest it may help the body fight cancer, although more research is needed to know for sure. You may also take a tincture of this mushroom extract, 30 - 60 drops 2 - 3 times a day.
- Turmeric (Curcuma longa) standardized extract, 300 mg 3 times a day. Turmeric or curcumin has been shown to kill cancer cells in test tubes. Studies are under way to see if it has the same effect in humans. Don't take Turmeric if you have gallstones or bile duct obstruction. Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interact with Turmeric.
Acupuncture is not used as a treatment for cancer itself. But evidence suggests it can help reduce cancer-related symptoms (particularly the nausea and vomiting that often accompanies chemotherapy). Studies show that acupuncture may help reduce pain and shortness of breath. Acupressure (pressing on rather than needling acupuncture points) may also help in controlling breathlessness. People can learn this technique and use it to treat themselves.
Some acupuncturists prefer to work with a patient only after conventional medical cancer therapy. Others will provide acupuncture or herbal therapy during active chemotherapy or radiation. Make sure you discuss these treatments with your medical team before proceeding. Acupuncturists treat cancer patients based on an individualized assessment of the excesses and deficiencies of qi located in various meridians. In many cases of cancer-related symptoms, a qi deficiency is usually detected in the spleen or kidney meridians.
Mind Body Medicine
Relaxation techniques can help people undergoing surgery. One study found that patients who received standard care plus use of guided imagery audiotapes before, during, and after surgery experienced significantly better sleep and less pain following the surgery than patients who received only standard care.
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